Its most broadly formulated program was prepared by N. Main article: Yugoslavism Pan-Slavism in the south would often turn to Russia for support.
Pan-Slavism was formulated as a theory in the early 19th century, the term itself being established by the Slovak J. At the end of the 18th century, the latter had already formulated in his famous "Slavic chapter" an ideal picture of the Slavs as peaceful ambassadors of humanity, who would establish a new world culture in the future.
In the later part of the century, following a political reconciliation between Austria and Hungary at the expense of most of the Slavic peoples in the empire, the Ukrainian intelligentsia increasingly consisted of Russophileswho were supported morally and financially by Pan-Slavist circles in Russia.
At different points in history, Poland often saw itself in partnership with non-Slavic nations, such as HungarySaxonySweden and Lithuania under the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth. Although Herder saw the Slavs as a nation, it is an irony of history that many intellectuals in East Central Europe and the Balkanswho concluded that the Pan-Slavic idea was a harbinger of an "awakening of the peoples", actually only promoted their own national movement s.
Proposals that Russian be used as the common Slav language also gained support. The first was the Habsburg Empire, under whose rule the region stood; the second was the South Slavic population, which had inhabited the area for centuries and given birth to independent national movements since the late s.
This laid the ideal groundwork for Pan-Slav agitation and put the Russian government under pressure to act.