129785 2015 specimen paper 1 mark

Now the lag time is defined as the time between removing the specimen from the body until freezing. However, the current measurement of lag time may be misleading by not measuring the time the tissue was without a blood supply. When crossing borders, the language becomes a second barrier, which needs the addition of translation tables for all words that will be used. To understand the issues on an International level sometimes means a biobank manager needs both legal and ethical advice. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint Relation between type of biomarker research and type of biobank. Additional complications arise within hospital security when data needs to be shared. The type of biosample collected depend on the experimental design but it is mandatory that a tissue fragment must be kept on ice when resected from a patient until it can be snap frozen, particularly if the sample later will be used in molecular studies. However, also the clinical cohort studies face similar problems. IATA requires specific labelling on the outside of the package e. In a few isolated incidents, legislation has not been invoked to address the issue. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint Accompanying sample information in relation to the relative availability and scientific value. Uses knowledge to evaluate the sources and shows good contextual awareness. The second column shows the opportunities of biomarker discovery, whereas the last column shows the associated type of biobank. This code was originally designed for residual material, but could form a basis for exchange of all human material for medical or healthcare research.

Instead of specifying every sample with exact clinical data in the network central database, the requestor has the task to specify the samples exactly to his needs and ask the national or international repository network or the involved collectors on the availability of such samples.

Instances where these coding tables are subject to a license can place a further barrier to implementation.

129785 2015 specimen paper 1 mark

This implies that human samples for cancer research need to be sourced from distinct forms of biobanking. This is also the country of the donor, where a democratic process has, or even in some cases deliberately has not formed these rules and thus represents the general will of the donor.

Indeed this phase can be very critical for the overall quality of the sample and its future use.

history a level specimen paper

Reaches a sustained judgement about the extent to which the sources support the statement and weighs the evidence in order to do this. Material Transfer Agreements are generally used and accepted as binding contract when samples are exchanged from the bank to research.

This would mean that if samples are moved to a country with other or even stricter rules the rules of the home country apply and no further demands need to be met.

These minimum standards also describe examples of sample preparation protocols that can be used. Level 3: Compares views and identifies similarities and differences [8—11] Compares the views expressed in the sources, identifying differences and similarities. However, an adverse effect might be the actual clinical performance of the identified marker.

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Clearly this is just one area that would benefit from additional research and leadership directed towards resolving the issues in a practical way. The tasks are performed dependent on the size of the clinical biobank minimally by a biobank manager and a research technician dedicated to the biobank often complimented by a research nurse when informed consent is needed.

In addition, the full pricing can be to shown to those scientists who do not have to pay the samples have beyond a scientific value to demonstrate that a substantial financial value is represented. Demands on intellectual property rights find their way more and more into these MTA's. Moreover, clotting additives may compete or interfere with the binding of proteins on the surface of protein chip arrays used in MS. The choice in cost models is already difficult and chasing for hidden costs even worse. The most secure way of shipping biological samples is to use Liquid Nitrogen Vapour Shippers. However, due to the stakeholders at institutes such review boards can only issue an advise to the institute and leave the final decision to the institute committee. Along with standards operating procedures for the collection, processing, storage, relative scientific value and distribution of materials, these systems would result in a significant improvement for researchers. Clinical, environmental and demographic data play an important role in the research capabilities of the sample. This implies the original lesion must stay intact, when the material is used for research purposes.

One option is to close the archive for further medical research; however, this is not really contributing to better medical care.

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